Libya, in full, Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, nation of northern Africa. It is bounded on the north by the Mediterranean Sea, on the east by Egypt, on the southeast by Sudan, on the south by Chad and Niger, on the west by Algeria, and on the northwest by Tunisia. Libya is one of the largest countries in Africa, much of its area is desert. Tripoli, located on the Mediterranean coast, is the capital and largest city.
Libya is rich with petroleum resources, and oil dominates the nation’s economy. The site of ancient Phoenician, Roman, and Arab settlements, Libya was colonized by Italy in the early 20th century. The country became independent in 1951, and in 1969 a new Libya based on his unique socialistic and nationalistic theories was created.