Havana is the capital and largest city in Cuba. It was founded by the Spanish in the 16th century and was officially granted the title of city in 1592. After a long and turbulent history of other nations attempting to conquer the city, as well as being a frequent target of pirate attacks, Cuba finally gained formal independence in 1902 after the Spanish-American War. A burgeoning tourism industry marked a significant change in the city with the construction of numerous hotels and casinos in the 1930s. The city's skyline was dramatically altered in the 1950s with the construction of modern high-rise office buildings, apartment complexes, and hotels. That growth came to a halt after a political revolution which resulted in a trade embargo by the United States in 1960. Recent efforts have been made to ease the embargo and re-establish relations – which is giving hope to a new era of growth and development.