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The Monument

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The Monument


Structure in General

existing [completed]
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  • The viewing gallery is situated at around 49 metres (160 feet).
  • This is the tallest free-standing stone column in the world. 311 steps lead to the viewing deck with a great view over London.
  • The column is punctuated at regular levels with narrow slits which allow in natural light.
  • The urn atop the Monument housed a lens which corresponded with a lens in the basement through which natural light was projected for Wren to try and prove that the earth rotated by measuring its movement against fixed points in the sky.
  • Metal bars both surround and and traverse the top of the viewing deck to prevent accidents.
  • All visitors who complete the climb are presented with a certificate of achievement.
  • The Monument is Grade I Listed.
  • The column is topped by a flaming copper urn, symbolising the fire.
  • A frieze on the base of the column depicts the Shattered City.
  • The Monument was also conceived by Christopher Wren (a noted scientist as well as architect) as a laboratory for him to carry out his experiments.
  • The fluted column is Roman Doric and constructed from Portland limestone.
  • Pendulums were dangled within the hollow column to test whether gravity made objects heavier dependent on height and whether or not atmospheric pressure changes at different levels within the shaft.
  • The Monument sits in its own public square which was unveiled in January 2007 and was created from the part-pedestrianisation of , the column's former address.
  • The first major renovation works were undertaken since 1888 when The Monument was closed from July 30th, 2007 until early 2009. Upgrades saw stone cleaning, improved lighting, a modified observation "cage", video feed from the top to the ground and the ability to host laser and firework displays.
  • The Monument cost £13,700 to erect. It was built in memory of the Great Fire of London which started on the night of 2nd September 1666, and stands exactly 202ft from the source of the fire which broke out in a baker's shop in Pudding Lane.

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More Information


Monument Square
Monument Square
City of London
United Kingdom

Technical Data

202.00 ft
202.00 ft

Involved Companies

Sir Christopher Wren
Dr Robert Hooke

Features & Amenities

  • One of the city's famous buildings
  • City landmark
  • National landmark
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