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Your Location: World North America U.S.A. Illinois Chicago John Hancock Center

John Hancock Center

Identification

John Hancock Center
116876

Map

Structure in General

skyscraper
existing [completed]
trussed tube
steel
caisson foundation
aluminum
curtain wall
black
structural expressionism
flat roof with 1 box

Usage

commercial office residential condominium
parking restaurant shop(s)

Facts

  • The original sunken plaza on Michigan Avenue was larger and rectangular, and had a wide reflecting pool.
  • John Hancock Center is a member of the World Federation of Great Towers.
  • The top roof is almost exactly even with the 86th floor of the Willis Tower.
  • The John Hancock Center was only the third building in the world to be taller than 1,000 feet tall and the first outside of New York. The first two were the Chrysler Building in 1930 and the Empire State Building in 1931.
  • The five X's on each side go from floors 2-20, 21-37, 38-55, 56-74, and 75-91. A half-X extends from 92 to 97.
  • Remodeled in 1995, the lobby features rich travertine marble and textured limestone surfaces.
  • As happened later with the Sears Tower, the architects presented the developer with two options: either a pair of medium-height towers, or a single very large skyscraper.
  • The alternative plan for the complex called for a 70-story apartment building and a 45-story office building of equal height, positioned at the northeast and southwest corners of the lot.
  • In order to fit the structural frame, the floors at the top of each X have extra-high ceilings (adding significantly to their property value).
  • The idea of a tube-framed skyscraper was first realized two blocks down the street at The Plaza on Dewitt.
  • This was the first trussed-tube skyscraper ever built. The idea was developed by Fazlur Khan, based on a project of Illinois Institute of Technology graduate student Mikio Sasaki.
  • After engineer Fazlur Khan had calculated the tower's sway in high winds, no one knew the effect it would have on tenants. Lacking funds for a major psychological study, Khan improvised an experiment at Chicago's Museum of Science & Industry, placing 8 subjects on a rotating exhibit. The test confirmed that the sway would be within the limits of comfort.
  • The outline of the John Hancock appears on the Illinois version of the quarter-dollar coin, minted in 2003.
  • The office lobby was originally a high-ceilinged space on the second floor accessed by escalators. It was shifted to ground level in the 1990s, and the old space was converted to retail.
  • For the first few years of the building's existence there was a private restaurant in the skylobby called Club 44, for the exclusive use of residents and their guests. Its food was supplied by the public restaurant upstairs.
  • As an alternative to balconies, about one-third of the residential units have "sky terraces" - a sort of tiled sunroom separated from living spaces by glass doors.
  • America's highest indoor swimming pool is located on the 44th floor near the skylobby. The pool itself is carved out of the mechanical floor below.
  • The slope of the windows helps to reduce the feeling of vertigo for people looking out of high floors.
  • The building tapers on all four sides, narrowing by a total of 105 feet on the east & west sides and 65 feet on the north & south.
  • Since the floorplates do not transfer wind loads to the structural core as in most skyscrapers, it is possible to create a two-story space by cutting out the floor almost anywhere in the building.
  • The parking garage is accessed through a detached spiral ramp at the southeast corner; the double helix makes 3 loops each way between ground level and the garage.
  • The base facade was originally clad in white travertine, but this was later replaced with a much darker granite. The black anodized aluminum facade starts at the second floor.
  • The observation floor features the highest balcony in America, a screened-in area called the "Skywalk".
  • In 1988 the owners planned to cover the plaza with a gabled glass atrium extending to the lot line at Michigan Avenue. The proposal was shot down by extensive local opposition.
  • The semicircular sunken plaza on the west side is a public oasis with seasonal plantings and a 12-foot waterfall.
  • Tallest building in Chicago (or anywhere outside New York) from 1969 to 1973; surpassed by the Standard Oil Building (now the Aon Center).
  • The eastern antenna was elevated to its full height on Thursday, December 5th, 2002. The top of the antenna now reaches just higher than the roofline of the Sears Tower across town.
  • A band of white lights around the 100th floor is visible all over Chicago at night. The lights change color for Christmas, Valentine's Day, St. Patrick's Day, July 4, and Halloween.
  • Because of space constraints caused by the tower's tapering walls, common hallways and elevator lobbies are narrower on higher floors.
  • A segment of the east antenna was removed in 2000 when a broadcasting agency's lease terminated.
  • The building's distinctive X-bracing has made it an architectural icon, and increases the flexibility of interior spaces by eliminating the need for regular columns between the core and perimeter.
  • The building is one of the most recognizable in the world and has won numerous awards for its distinctive style, including the 1970 Honor Award of the AIA Chicago Chapter.
  • In 1999 this building became the 30th recipient of the American Institute of Architects' prestigious Twenty-Five Year Award.
  • The maximum elevator speed is 549 m/min.

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More Information

Location

875 North Michigan Avenue, 175 East Delaware Place
60611
U.S.A.

Technical Data

1,499.02 ft
1,127.59 ft
1,127.59 ft
1,106.66 ft
1,054.17 ft
1,029.56 ft
1,029.56 ft
264.99 ft
164.99 ft
100
Jun 1965
1969
8.66 ft
50
750
$95,000,000

Involved Companies

Architect:

Also recorded for this building:

acoustics consultant, client, consultant, developer, electrical connections, elevator supplier, escalator supplier, facade supplier, financing, fire protection engineering, formwork supplier, general contractor, geotechnical engineering, landscape architect, lighting consultant, lightning protection, MEP engineering, owner, parking management, property management, shell construction, steel supplier, structural engineering

Features & Amenities

  • One of the city's famous buildings
  • Aircraft warning lights installed
  • Doorman is available
  • Exercise facility is available
  • Hospitality room is available
  • Laundry room is available
  • Observation floor is available
  • Plaza is available to the public
  • Public parking is available
  • Skylobby is present
  • Swimming pool is available
  • Transmission antenna on roof